Experimental Manipulation: do with stimuli, check change in behavior
Control Condition: apply "Subtract Logic" to change only the manipulation we are interested in.
semantic error (accuracy): binary
response time (response latency, reaction time): continuous
Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff: Two extreme strategy. You cannot draw clear conclusion with graphs that show Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff.
As human optimize for accuracy, binary accuracy might be similar while response time vary drastically different
Flanker Effect: interference in visual processing (identifying the dirrection of middle arrow in a sea of arrows)
Simon Effect: spacial interference in visual decision (press red bottom when there is a red square on the right of the screen)
Stroop Effect: word color vs. word meaning
Incongruence always increase reaction time
Eye-tracking: tracking quick, online performance
how do people understand sentences
we find if we say "the boy wants to eat _____"
the participant will look at the eatable item on picture
Reading the graph
Fixation(x): whether the eye is looking at target object
Restriction: restrict to the word "eat"
Non-restriction: control group
Participants Types: this is so that cognition change by age and diseases; this is so that we can observe learning;
Neurotypical yong adults
Healthy old adults
Healthy children, adolescents (infants to highschool)
People with specific disorder
Testing 2-year old: This is a MIP, there are two MIPs
Neural Network: behavior can be explained with neural network model
Why use neural tools: interested in specific part of the brain
good for seeing bones
cannot see soft tissues
no X-ray, healthier (but magnetic field)
see soft tissues well
PET: not really used
fMRI: functional MRI
detect changes in blood flow (oxygen in the blood) in the brain as a function of neural activity.
BOLD fMRI: Blood-oxygen-level-dependent imaging (usually used)
great for special resolution millimeter precition
bad for: temporal resolution; brain changes a lot more faster than resolution.
Networks: multiple regions of brain on specific or general things (e.g. hard tasks)
Anatomical connectivity: looking at white matter (mostly axons), may imply functional connectivity; invariant in development of the brain
Functional connectivity: which region work together when the brain is carry out cognative activity (statistic correlation, no causal relation); task dependence
Effective connectivity: temporal analyses (can draw causal relation as experiment)
Neural Psychology: study lesion using "voxel-based leision symptom mapping" and make statistic correlation with functional impair
You don't need to understand charts stuff. They are for comparing with other studies and non-important details.
EEG (Electroencephalography): non-invasive electors measure of electrical signals projected to surface of the skull.
good for time resolution, not good for spacial resolution due to the nature of electrical signals
ERP (event-related potential): condensed form of EEG
source location methods: large dataset, many electors with computer reconstruction
MEG (Magnetoencephalography): high spacial and temporal resolution
tDCS: Transcranial Dirrect Current Stimulation
cheap, current goes everywhere, low spacial resolution
Classic tDCS: directly sending week electrical signals to brain in one region
HD-tDCS: many focused electro
alternating current vs. dirrect current
measure change in activity as a result of injecting electrical durrent
very precise, paried with structural MRI, good spacial resolution
temporally interrupt neurons, just like tDCS
ECoG (electrocorticography): record passive data from the brain
before surgery, measure brain data with invasive electors
essentially EEG, and conduct cognitive study to identify location of seizure
Awake Surgery: playing guitar while doing surgery
Visual Processing: happens in occipital lobe
Inattentional Bias: can't perceive gorilla in video
Change Blindness: can't spot change of environment in video
Neuropsychology: the study of cognition in individuals with neurological deficits.
Visual agnosia: can't identify and classify object. (The person can see objects, pick them up and manipulate them without difficulty, but cannot tell what they are or what they are for by looking at them.)
Optic ataxia: can't interact with object, don't know its location. (The person can see objects and knows very well what they are and what they are for, but has difficulty interacting with them, like reaching and grabbing them.)
Dorsal pathway: control spacial location and action. Damage would cause Optic ataxia. Generate Ebbinghaus illusion.
Ventral pathway: object classification. Damage would cause Visual agnosia.
// QUESTION: what is identity priming, and non-identity
priming: Facilitation in the processing of an item as a function of prior exposure
Identity priming: repetition priming make participants quicker response time (e.g. apple image and apple image)
Non-identity priming: emantic, phonological (word "DOCTOR" and "NURSE")
subliminal priming: priming in the surface of conscious
Subliminal identity priming works
Subliminal priming is visual (only seen for the same picture, not even for the same object with a different picture)
Subliminal priming is sensitive to position, but doesn’t go away. More higher level in ventral visual pathway.
Foveal (central) vision: what you fixate on; highest visual acuity Peripheral vision: outside of your fixation point; lower acuity
Hemi-spatial neglect: cannot notice strange in left vision, no awareness.
damage: right side of occipital lobe and parietal lobe
Early selection theories: This view posits that people have limited capacity for visual processing, and only ever see what they attend to.
select region of pixel and process all the way through
evidence: inattentional blindness
Late selection theories: This view posits that perception is automatic and has unlimited capacity. Brain processes everything, regardless of whether people want it to or not.
process all pixels in some degree
evidence: subliminal priming (see something, all pixels, not in conscious)
load theory of attention:
Perception is automatic (late selection view)
But it IS capacity-limited (early selection view)
Concept of Attention:
Targets: what is relevant to our goals and we wish to process.
Distractors: what is in our visual field, but you’re not intentionally processing. Sometimes distractors are good (in traffics, targets are roads, distractors are unexpected people on roads)
Perceptual load: load in external world
High: Attention consumed by focusing on the task and the target. No capacity left for processing distractors. This would look like an early selection view. hard to distracted
Low: Target processing is easy. Lots of capacity left for processing other information. This would look like a late selection view. easily distracted
Cognitive load: load in your head
Frontal Lobe: cognitive control
Parietal Lobe: spatial attention (mostly right brain)
Occipital Lobe: sensory processing of visual stimuli
Advantage of Having Modules:
increase processing speed
modular development, specialization
proactive interference: old info interfere with new info (what we want) retroactive interference: new info interfere with old info (what we want)
Disadvantage of Having Modules:
debate: nativism vs. empiricism (nature vs. nurture)
Reproductive Memory: reproduce what was remembered Refill Memory: fill gaps of missing memory
Recall: free or cued recall
Recognition: present with the material, ask whether the material is new (seen before), or old (unseen)
Primacy Effect: remember first few words better Recency Effect: Remember close in time
The more words gets recalled (more similar words), the exponentially (not linear) more words is false memory.
know vs. remember:
know: only know it appear
remember: being able to re-live the experience
recall is not the cause of false memory (subjective feeling of remember/know is the same)
Result: remember, confidence, memory detail doesn't indicate actual happen
False memory created by network of knowledge tree because they are related.
Depth of Processing: knowledge tree
transfer appropriate processing: remember things you attended to
chunking: breaking up knowledge into chunks to remember better.
state(context)-dependence of memory: you remember the best if you are in the same room / context
episodic memory: memory of events with spatial, temporal context
semantic memory: long term general knowledge in large scale.
Serial (feed-forward) system: long term memory cannot affect working memory (bad, old model)
Interactive feedback System: long term memory can affect working memory (good model)
Multimodal Processing: if impaired, cannot associate visual with auditory information.
phonological loop: vocal or subvocal rehearsal
word length effect: only remember around 2 seconds
disrupt rehearsal process: by repeating the word "the" outload while trying to remember phone number
Recourse in Working memory
discrete: if you have 4 bits of memory, and need to remember 6 bits, you can remember 4 bits perfectly while can't remember other 2 bits
continuos: you remember all 6 bits but less precisely
set size effect: ??
Place Cells: orientation-invariant and location-specific cell to fire. Boarder Cells: activated when the mouse is near a boarder of an environment Head Cells: location-invariant but orientation-specific cell to fire. (not only in Hippocampus) Grid Cells: Combine input from head direction and (in Entorhinal Cortex)
Two systems for navigation
Coordinate System: a coordinate system, produced by grid cell, forming equalaterial triangle
Landmark: assign landmark to perceived coordinate
Matter for Spacial Navigation:
Perspective Taking: the ability to imagine self in different location and orientation.
Encoded Latent Space constraints Statistical Pattern
Learned Latent Meaning constraints
Phonemes: smallest units of sound.
Letter: symbols (two letters can correspond to 1 phoneme.
SHEEP has 3 phonemes and 5 letters)
Phonemes are language specific
How baby segments words in new language: statistical learning
phonene restoration effect: brain fills phoneme
Mcgurk Effect: "ba-ba-ba" vs "fa-fa-fa" (multi-modal learning)
Phantom Words: hearing words from non-sense sound.
The cohort Effect:
feedforward: explain acoustic related activation
feedback: explain semantic related activation, explains phonene restoration effect
Sketchpad, Episotic buffer, Phonological Loop
sketchpad: short term visual memory
phonological loop: language verbal short term memory
episodic buffer: cannot link verbal and visual memory
biased effect: you always need to compare data with a baseline. People are not unbiased (response 50% yes and 50% no to a question with no information). two mechanisms: decay, interference
retrival induced forgetting
Activation: multiply by weight in neural network Selection: activation function, needs "monitoring"
Domain General vs. Domain Specific
Lexical Errors: language error by swapping places of word in sentences.
noun always swap with noun
can swap accross long time
when speak, slight activation of false activation produce error
Phonological Errors: language error by swapping sound.
don't care as much as noun or verb
can only swap when together
when speak, the feedback from phonome to meaning back to phonome produce error
Aphasia is a extreme of daily language error
Global noise: network suffer similarly Noise in specific layer: more error down the stream
Wernick's Aphasia: confidently put stream of speech that is grammatical correct but make no sense. Can't quiet understand instruction. Can make up word.
Brocka's Aphasia: kinda don't know how to link concept to word and therefore can't put sentence together. Can only find nouns, hard time finding verbs.
Speech complementary models
Comprehension-based monitor: high level semantic correction Forward model: still have backprop, deaf child can't correct motor sound based on what the child hear.
generate semantic error in word production is in (meaning to sound): feedforward
generate phonological errors in word comprehension (sound to meaning): feedforward
phonene restoration effect: feedback
phonological: words semantic: high level idea
L1 different than L2 for different language. Language is not the same in multilingual than in monolingual??
Bilingual benifit: switch language, inhibition gives daily practice
Meta-analysis: combine data
can be conditioned
not global, it is task dependent
context can pre-load task specific memory (my interpretation)
stimuli with non-uniform probability can facilitate task switching
the classification of whether I need to switch to specific task in the next timestamp is reward-driven (loss calculated from ground truth, is there real task switching?) and can be conditioned.
Traditional view: cognitive control (including task switching) is high level regulatory system that governs low level system
cognitive control: override habits (automatic behavior)
habit: bottom-up processing (driven by stimulus)
control: top-down processing (driven by conscious)
Associative Learning between stimulus and control:
traditional view control: control supervise everything learning view: control is baked in forward model and used throughout (learning view does not predict far transfer)
Two Biases in Studies:
passive control group result placebo effect (compared to active)
Meta-analysis: get rid of publication bias (null result hardly published and accumulative error) by analysis on multiple studies
Effect Size: significance times the mean difference
IQ: operationalized measure g: general intelligence by construct (underlying variable, can't be directly measured)
Positive manifold: positive correlation among different tests of intelligence. The score in subtests are correlated.
ability differentiation: correlation is lower in people with higher mean ability
worst pedormance rule: the worst performance of all subtests is a better predictor of g than better performance of subtests
Latent variable: can't directly measured
principle component analysis
structural equation modeling
reflective: variables that affect other variables (lower level latent) formative: variables that is affected by other variables (high level)
Manifest variables: can be directly measured
people solve task by reuse other partis of brain: blink people use visual region of brain to establish acoustic, tactile representation
life-long adaptation: brain is malleable to evolve for new tasks
tools evolve to maximize brian process efficiency (e.g. words, math formula)
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