Why use neural tools: interested in specific part of the brain
good for seeing bones
cannot see soft tissues
no X-ray, healthier (but magnetic field)
see soft tissues well
Different Methods in MRI. Visibility of seizure is prominant in DWI but not in T1W. Anatomical detail in DWI is not apparent in T1W.
PET: not really used
fMRI: functional MRI
detect changes in blood flow (oxygen in the blood) in the brain as a function of neural activity.
BOLD fMRI: Blood-oxygen-level-dependent imaging (usually used)
great for special resolution millimeter precition
bad for: temporal resolution; brain changes a lot more faster than resolution.
Different Sets of Control Group: (1) general control group faces vs. object; (2) maybe sensitive to low-level structures of pixels; (3) maybe sensitive to visual categories
Networks: multiple regions of brain on specific or general things (e.g. hard tasks)
Anatomical connectivity: looking at white matter (mostly axons), may imply functional connectivity; invariant in development of the brain
Functional connectivity: which region work together when the brain is carry out cognative activity (statistic correlation, no causal relation); task dependence
Effective connectivity: temporal analyses (can draw causal relation as experiment)
DTI: one way to visualize connectivity; made by tracking the movement of water molecules
Neural Psychology: study lesion using "voxel-based leision symptom mapping" and make statistic correlation with functional impair
Examples of Neural Data: data in different views; Colored region are statistical significant compared to controll group; Non-colored regions signals no difference. We are most interested in red (activated) regions than blue (less activated compared to comtrolls) regions because blue regions are confounding in different trails. Red region help us answer our question.
You don't need to understand charts stuff. They are for comparing with other studies and non-important details.
EEG (Electroencephalography): non-invasive electors measure of electrical signals projected to surface of the skull.
good for time resolution, not good for spacial resolution due to the nature of electrical signals
ERP (event-related potential): condensed form of EEG
source location methods: large dataset, many electors with computer reconstruction
MEG (Magnetoencephalography): high spacial and temporal resolution
tDCS: Transcranial Dirrect Current Stimulation
cheap, current goes everywhere, low spacial resolution
Classic tDCS: directly sending week electrical signals to brain in one region
HD-tDCS: many focused electros
alternating current vs. dirrect current
measure change in activity as a result of injecting electrical durrent
very precise, paried with structural MRI, good spacial resolution
temporally interrupt neurons, just like tDCS
ECoG (electrocorticography): record passive data from the brain
before surgery, measure brain data with invasive electors
essentially EEG, and conduct cognitive study to identify location of seizure
Awake Surgery: playing guitar while doing surgery
Table of Content