Political Science is biased by choice of methodology under constraints.
epistemic value: good
political (moral) value: bad
constitutive value: necessary
contextual value: environment
String Thesis of Value Freedom: Science should have no value.
Moderate Thesis of Value Freedom: Science is objective when only epistemic values are constitutive of science practice; moral and political consideration must always remain contextual.
How value can be in science
in choosing acceptable p value
in choosing loss function
Definitions of Objectivity
define value a. beliefs has intersubjectivity b. beliefs is a subset of values c. values are not tied to behavior, since one can have one value and behave in a totally opposite direction. d. They are a black box machine since values are infinite.
reading: research violent games
conclusion: no difference
a. objection that is epistemic values - game not representative - better to compare gamers from non-gamers b. objection that is non-epistemic value - violent doesn't matter as much as FPS. - reaction doesn't tie to violence in society - less reaction can be more violent c. objection that is constitutive value - game not representative - better to compare gamers from non-gamers d. objection that is contextual value - violent doesn't matter as much as FPS. - reaction doesn't tie to violence in society - less reaction can be more violent
Adding value in gun violence research Yes. Gun issue is not objective since it does not have intersubjectivity. Since the truth may lie in the spectrum of those different believes, the insertion of such bias into science research will lock down the possibility of otherwise.
"Damage done" is a constitutive value.
constitutive value: generated from goal of an activity (epistemic) contextual value: environment, independent from goal (non-epistemic)
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