When using a firearm, be sure to follow the five primary safety rules. You can remember these rules by thinking S.M.A.R.T.:
Safe Direction: Keep your firearm pointed in a safe direction at all times.
Make Sure: Positively identify your target.
Always Check: Know what’s beyond your target before shooting.
Respect Firearms: Treat all firearms as if they are loaded.
Trigger Caution: Don’t touch the trigger until you’re ready to shoot.
Here are additional firearm safety rules that you should know:
Check your barrel and ammunition.
Unload firearm when not in use.
Point a firearm only at something you intend to shoot.
Don't run, jump, or climb with a loaded firearm.
Store firearms and ammunition separately and safely.
Don't drink alcoholic beverages before or during shooting.
Nationally, about 5% of the population hunts, and roughly the same percentage actively opposes hunting.
Hunting and trapping have been a part of Pennsylvania’s rich history since the beginning of the Commonwealth. When Europeans arrived in 1610, they discovered an abundance of wildlife. Elk, deer, black bear, waterfowl, and even moose, along with predators such as wolves and mountain lions, roamed the mountains, swamps, and forests of the state. Settlers hunted and trapped for food and furs to survive in the “wilderness” that was Pennsylvania. This way of life was not taught in a classroom but was passed on by family members from one generation to the next.
It wasn’t until 1959 that Pennsylvania provided any type of official training. The first courses were known as “safety courses” and were taken on a voluntary basis. By 2009, with hunter and trapper education mandatory, nearly 2,000,000 students have been certified.
How has this helped hunting and trapping in Pennsylvania? Since the beginning of hunter and trapper education programs, hunting fatalities and injuries from firearms have declined nearly 80 percent. It is the goal of this hunter and trapper education program to continue to produce safe, responsible, knowledgeable, and involved hunters and trappers in Pennsylvania.
During the 19th century, many game animals were hunted nearly into extinction. The thundering herds of bison that once roamed the plains were reduced to about 800 head. The beaver was almost wiped out. Elk, deer, and pronghorn were reduced to a fraction of their once-plentiful numbers.
During the 19th century, many game animals were hunted nearly into extinction. Hunting laws were passed to:
Ensure the availability of game for future generations.
Establish hunting seasons to limit harvesting and avoid hunting during nesting and mating seasons.
Limit hunting methods and equipment.
Set “bag” limits. Establish check stations and game tag requirements.
Define the rules of fair chase.
Federal Government: The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service provides federal aid to state wildlife agencies to support a variety of hunting-related projects, including hunter education, land acquisition, and improvement of wildlife habitat. The Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration funding was established in 1937 by the Pittman–Robertson Act.
State Government: State wildlife agencies sponsor the hunter education programs that are found in each state or province.
National Hunter Education Organizations: Non-governmental organizations (Ducks Unlimited, IHEA–USA, etc.) offer hunter education and firearm safety education materials and training.
Industry, Business, and Clubs: Many firearm and archery manufacturers provide training materials to teach hunters how to use their products safely. Local hunting clubs, civic clubs, and businesses often provide the facilities and equipment for hunter education courses.
Hunting Education: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, state and provincial wildlife agencies, non-governmental organizations (such as IHEA-USA), hunting equipment manufacturers, and local organizations.
Pittman–Robertson Act (Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act):
found hunting education
"Robertson's 29 words" are a clause in the act's language to prevent states from diverting license fees paid by hunters away from their intended purpose: "... And which shall include a prohibition against the diversion of license fees paid by hunters for any other purpose than the administration of said State fish and game department..."
Wildlife Management Law:
Establishing hunting seasons that limit harvesting and avoid nesting and mating seasons.
Limiting hunting methods and equipment.
Setting “bag” limits on the number of animals that can be taken.
Establishing check stations and game tag requirements to enforce the laws.
Establish safety guidelines for hunting that protect both hunters and non-hunters.
Offer equal opportunity for all hunters, whether they use modern firearms, muzzleloaders, or bows.
Ensure adequate funding for wildlife programs by collecting license fees, which annually raises millions of dollars.
Fair chase rules: make sure hunters have no unfair advantage over wild game by balancing the skills and equipment of the hunter with the abilities of the animal to escape. (so you can't cheat, the game rule is written in law)
May involve: banning the use of vehicles, airplanes, and radios; electronic calling; or shooting in a fenced enclosure
For skill development: Expert hunters may use more restrictive and less effective techniques than novice hunters.
Many states have made these rules into law.
Hunting license, permits, and stamp requirements
Hunting seasons, locations, hours, and bag limits
Legal methods for hunting different species
Hunter orange requirements
Tagging, transporting, and reporting (checking) requirements
Find Hunting Regulation in:
Official state publications
Wildlife agency websites
Hunting access guides or booklets
For example, an animal appears beyond a hunter’s effective range for a clean kill. Should the hunter take the shot anyway and hope to get lucky? Ethical hunters would say no.
Respect natural resources
Respect other hunters
Respect Natural Resources
Leave the land better than you found it.
Adhere to fair chase rules.
Learn about wildlife, and support wildlife conservation programs.
Know your capabilities and limitations as a marksman, and stay within your effective range.
Strive for a quick, clean kill.
Make sure that meat and usable parts are not wasted by harvesting only as much as can be used or shared.
Hunt only with other ethical hunters.
Abide by game laws and regulations.
Cooperate with conservation officers.
Report game violations.
Ask landowners for permission to hunt.
Follow their restrictions on when and where you may hunt.
Treat livestock and crops as your own.
Offer to share a part of your harvest with the owner.
Leave all gates the way you found them.
If you notice something wrong or out of place, notify the landowner immediately.
Never enter private land that is cultivated or posted unless you have obtained permission first. Some states require written permission from landowners.
Landlords may get mad of you for the following reasons:
Don’t get permission to hunt.
Don’t tell the landowners when they arrive at or leave the property.
Make too much noise.
Leave litter behind.
Carry loaded firearms in vehicles.
Drive off the ranch roads.
Don’t leave gates as they were found (open or shut) when the hunter arrived.
Shoot too close to neighbors or livestock.
Leave fires unattended.
Violate game laws.
Drink alcohol to excess.
Transport animals discreetly—don’t display them.
Keep firearms out of sight.
Refrain from taking graphic photographs of the kill and from vividly describing the kill while within earshot of non-hunters.
Maintain a presentable appearance while on the street—no bloody or dirty clothing.
Anti-hunter Protester: Report hunter harassment to law enforcement authorities. If possible, record the vehicle license number of harassers.
Gray Areas of Hunting:
Baiting deer with corn or protein pellets
Shooting birds on the ground, on the water, or in trees
Shooting from a vehicle or boat within private boundaries or on private waters
Five Stages to Become Experienced:
Shooting Stage: when you don't have patient and just want to shoot (showing off the fact that I can shoot)
Limiting-Out Stage: want to do challenging moves for quantity (showing off how many I shoot)
Trophy Stage: judge success by quality over quantity (showing off how good I can shoot)
Method Stage: judge success by the process (showing off how I shoot)
Sportsman Stage: judge in terms of recognitions of others (showing off personal accomplishments)
Rifle: firing at stationary targets.
Shotgun: shooting at moving targets in the air.
Handgun: firing at stationary targets.
Action: moving part. load, fire the ammunition. eject the shells or cartridges.
Stock: you hold it
Barrel: guides the projectile in the intended direction.
Trigger Guard: a ring near trigger to prevent accidental touch
Safety: block trigger, prevent human failure
Manazine: hold ammunition before load them into chamber
Chamber: Base of the barrel used to hold the cartridge or shotshell ready for shooting
Forestock: hold it
Sight: Device used for aiming by aligning a front and rear sight
Muzzle: The end of the barrel through which the projectile (bullet or shot) exits
bore: Inside of the firearm barrel through which the projectile travels when fired
breech: Rear end of the barrel
firing pin: A pin that strikes the primer of the cartridge, causing ignition
receiver: Metal housing for the working parts of the action
Muzzleloaders have locks instead of actions.
Butt: hold against shoulder
Forestock (or fore end): On a pump (or slide) action, sliding the forestock back ejects the shotshell and cocks the action. Sliding it forward loads a fresh shell into the chamber.
Rib: A raised surface along the top of the barrel which serves as a sighting plane
Bead: A visual indicator for pointing the shotgun
Double-Action Revolver: pistol, but with a revolver
Ejector Rod: Metal rod used to help with removal of cartridges (under Barrel)
Cylinder: revolver, store ammunition by rotation
Hammer: Part that strikes the primer to cause ignition
Grip: handel for handgun
Semi-Automatic Pistol: most common handgun
Ammunition: different type
caliber: Diameter of the bore of a rifle or handgun as measured from land to opposite land on rifled barrels and the designation for the size of ammunition for different bores
cartridge: for modern rifles and handguns; a case containing primer, gunpowder, and a bullet
shotshell: for modern shotguns; a case containing primer, gunpowder, wad, and a slug or shot
Rifles and handguns use a cartridge containing a single projectile (bullet). Shotguns use a shotshell containing either a single slug or a large number of small projectiles (shot or pellets).
Component of Ammunition:
case: made of brass, steel, copper, paper, or plastic.
gunpowder: A chemical mixture that burns rapidly and converts to an expanding gas when ignited. Modern smokeless powder will burn slowly when ignited in the open (outside of the case). Black powder is less stable and can be explosive when impacted or ignited in the open.
primer: ignites the gunpowder, placed either in the rim of the case (rimfire) or in the center of the base of the case (centerfire).
wad: A seal and/or shot container made of paper or plastic separating the powder from the slug or shot in a shotshell. The wad prevents gas from escaping through the shot and holds the shot together as it passes through the barrel.
It is critical that you use the correct cartridge or shotshell for your rifle, handgun, or shotgun. You should also consider the species being hunted, the hunting environment, and the hunting regulations.
Pointed Soft Point: High velocity, accurate bullets with a flat travel path (trajectory); excellent mushrooming
Rounded Soft Point: Popular for low-velocity calibers; recommended for tubular magazines
Protected Tip: Highly accurate with excellent expansion
Full Metal Jacket: Maximum penetration without mushrooming; these bullets are illegal for big game hunting in most states
Roundnose Lead: Good penetration, little expansion
Full Metal Jacket: High penetration, no expansion
Semi-Wad Cutter: Balances penetration and expansion
Hollowpoint: Designed for high expansion on impact
Wad Cutter: Flat-ended, used for target shooting; creates clean hole in paper
In tubular magazines, the bullet tip of one cartridge rests directly on the primer of the cartridge immediately ahead. For this reason, use only rounded or blunt tips in tubular magazines.
Centerfire ammunition: is used for rifles, shotguns, and handguns. In this type of ammunition, the primer is located in the center of the casing base. Most centerfire ammunition is reloadable.
Rimfire ammunition: has the primer contained in the rim of the ammunition casing. Rimfire ammunition is limited to low-pressure loads. Rimfire cartridges are not reloadable.
Shotshells use a slug or shot as the projectile.
gauge: Diameter of the bore of a shotgun and the designation for the size of ammunition for different bores
In general, as the size of your target decreases, you should decrease the diameter of the shot you use.
magnum: Shotshell marked as magnum means the shell has more shot or more gunpowder than a regular shell. Magnum and regular shotshells are interchangeable if the correct gauge and shell length are used.
Steel Shot: react differently than lead when shot. Because steel shot pellets are not as dense, they weigh about one-third less than lead shot pellets of the same size. Also, steel is harder, does not deform, and is not as unstable in flight as lead. It will produce a tighter pattern than lead shot. If using steel shot for hunting, choose a steel shot size one to two sizes larger than the lead shot you would select and choose a less constrictive choke.
Non-toxic shot (steel, tungsten alloy, or bismuth shot): required throughout the U.S. for waterfowl hunting. Studies showed that many waterfowl died each year because of lead poisoning.
Firing: same for shotguns, cartridges, rifles, handguns.
single-shot action: must be reloaded each time the firearm is fired.
repeating styles action: extra cartridges or shotshells ready in a magazine, cylinder, or extra barrel.
Bolt Action: A bolt-action firearm operates like opening and closing a door bolt. The bolt solidly locks into the breech, making it accurate and dependable.
To open the action, lift the handle up and pull it to the rear.
If the firearm is loaded, the cartridge or shotshell will be ejected as you pull the bolt to the rear. To make sure it’s unloaded, open the action, and check both the chamber and the magazine for cartridges or shotshells.
You can store a bolt-action firearm safely by storing the bolt separately from the firearm.
Lever Action: The lever-action firearm has a large metal lever located behind the trigger. This handle usually forms the trigger guard as well.
To open the action, push the lever downward and forward, which extracts the cartridge case from the chamber and ejects it. If a magazine holds extra cartridges, another is immediately ready to be loaded into the chamber.
It’s often difficult to tell whether a lever-action firearm is loaded. To unload, push the lever downward and forward repeatedly until no more cartridges are ejected. To make sure it's unloaded, open the action, and check both the chamber and the magazine for cartridges.
Most models also have an exposed hammer, which can be dangerous. Always use extra caution to keep your hands away from the trigger while working the lever action.
Pump Action: The pump-action firearm is fast and smooth. It allows the shooter to re-cock the firearm without taking his or her eye off the target. The pump action also is referred to as “slide action” or “trombone action.”
To open the action, slide the forestock to the rear, which extracts the cartridge or shotshell from the chamber and ejects it. Sliding the forestock toward the muzzle closes the action and readies another cartridge or shell for loading. A pump-action firearm will open only after it’s fired or if a release lever is pressed and the forestock is pulled to the rear.
To make sure it's unloaded, open the action, and check both the chamber and the magazine for cartridges or shotshells.
Semi-Automatic (Autoloading) Action: As each shot is fired manually, the case of the cartridge or shotshell is ejected automatically and the chamber is reloaded automatically.
To open the action, you must pull back the bolt’s operating handle (on a rifle or shotgun) or the slide (on a pistol). Most semi-automatics, when the bolt or slide is pulled back, will lock in the open position if the magazine is empty. If the firearm does not lock open, it means that a cartridge or shotshell from the magazine has gone into the chamber, making the firearm ready to fire. A few semi-automatics do not lock open and must be held open to check the chamber.
To unload, first remove the magazine, and lock the action open. Then make sure it’s unloaded—check both the chamber and the magazine for extra cartridges or shells.
When closing the action for loading, pull back to unlock the bolt or slide and then let go, allowing it to travel forward on its own. Do not guide it forward with your hand because it may not seat properly.
On a semi-automatic, the trigger must be pulled each time a shot is fired. This makes the semi-automatic different from the fully automatic firearm, which fires continuously as long as the trigger is held down.
The fully automatic firearm may not be used for hunting or sport shooting.
Break Action: The break-action firearm operates on the same principle as a door hinge. Simple to load and unload, a hinge action is often chosen as a hunter’s first firearm.
To open the action, point the barrel(s) at the ground. A release is pressed, and the stock drops downward. This allows the cartridges or shotshells to eject or to be removed manually if the firearm is loaded.
Hinge-action firearms have a separate barrel for each shot rather than a magazine. Most models have one or two barrels, but some have up to four.
Some models also have an exposed hammer(s), which can be dangerous.
Revolving Action: Revolving cylinders may rotate either clockwise or counterclockwise, depending on the manufacturer. This type of action is usually found on handguns but may be found on some older rifles. Revolving actions are referred to as either “single action” or “double action.”
single action: lighter trigger pull that is an aid to accuracy; but an accidental light touch of the trigger will usually fire a cocked single-action gun if the safety is off.
double action: A double-action gun's longer, heavier trigger pull is also considered safer. In fact, many double-action guns, especially revolvers, have no mechanical safety at all, since only a long, deliberate pull will fire the handgun.
Single-shot rifles are usually break- or bolt-actions. Repeating rifles include the bolt-action, lever-action, pump-action, and semi-automatic types.
Shotguns: They also use a break action as either a single barrel or double barrels. The double barrels can be arranged horizontally (side-by-side) or vertically (over-under).
Handguns: revolvers, pistols
Cross-Bolt Safety: pump and semi-automatic firearms
A simple, push-button action that blocks the trigger or hammer
Usually located at the trigger guard or ahead of the hammer
Pivot Safety: bolt-action rifles and found on some semi-automatic pistols
A pivoting lever or tab that blocks the trigger or firing pin
Located on the frame (blocks trigger) or on the bolt or slide (blocks firing pin)
Slide or Tang Safety: some rifles and break-action shotguns
A sliding bar or button that blocks the firing action
Located on the tang (a metal strip behind the receiver) of break-action firearms or on the side of the receiver on some rifles
Half-Cock or Hammer Safety: single-action revolvers and other firearms with exposed hammers
Positions the hammer at half-cock, away from the firing pin
Engaged by placing the hammer at half-cock
While not a true safety, it is sometimes described as a mechanical safety device by firearm manufacturers
Magazines: removable, spring-powered ammunition storage and feeding device that is inserted into a semi-automatic firearm
detachable: remove extra ammunition from the firearm by simply removing the magazine.
fixed: require the ammunition to be removed manually from the gun itself. These include tubular, hinged-floor-plate, and revolving magazines.
Magazines are designed with a spring and follower, which push against the cartridges to move them into the action. When checking a magazine to make sure it’s empty, you must be able to either see or feel the follower; if you cannot see or feel the follower, there may be a cartridge jammed in the magazine, which can be dangerous. Tubular magazines require close attention to make sure a cartridge is not jammed in the magazine.
Shotguns: usually have a simple pointing bead.
Rifles: typically have an open, aperture (peep), or telescopic sight.
Handguns: iron (open) sight, although some specialized handguns have a dot, a laser, or a telescopic sight.
Never use the scope on your telescopic sight as a pair of binoculars!
Bead Sight: Simple round bead set into the top of the barrel near the muzzle of a shotgun. Some shotguns have a second, smaller bead about halfway back on the barrel. The shooter uses the shotgun to “point” at and follow a moving object. The bead is used only for a reference as the shotgun is pointed and moved to follow flying or running targets.
Open (Iron) Sight: Combination of a bead or post front sight and a notched rear sight. These sights are simple and inexpensive. Open sights allow quick sighting. To aim, you center the top of the bead or post within the notch of the rear sight, and line up on the target. Open sights can be fixed or adjustable.
Aperture (Peep) Sight: Combination of a bead or post front sight and a round hole set on the rifle’s receiver close to the shooter’s eye. To aim, you center the target in the rear peep or aperture sight, and then bring the front sight into the center of the hole. An aperture sight lets you aim more accurately and is adjusted more easily than an open sight.
Telescopic Sight (Scope): Small telescope mounted on your firearm. A scope gathers light to brighten the image, uses mirrors and lenses to magnify the target, and does away with aligning rear and front sights. The aiming device inside the scope is called the “reticle.” To aim, you simply look through the scope, and line up the crosshairs, post, or dot with your target. Telescopic sights provide the most accurate aiming, which makes them popular for hunting.
Dot Sight: Small device mounted on your firearm. A dot sight uses electronics or optical fibers to project a glowing dot or other mark on a lens in front of the shooter’s eye. Some dot sights also magnify like telescopic sights.
Ballistics: science of bullet
Rifling is to increase accuracy and distance by making bullet spin. The bore of the shotgun barrel is smooth because rifling would spread the shot pattern too soon.
grooves: The spiral cuts in a rifled bore
lands: The ridges of metal between the grooves in a rifled bore
Caliber: For example, a .270-caliber rifle bore measures 270/1000ths of an inch in diameter between the lands and has a larger bore diameter than a .223-caliber rifle.
Caliber designations sometimes have a second number that has nothing to do with the diameter. For example, the popular .30-30 is a .30-caliber cartridge, but the second number is a holdover from the days when the cartridge took 30 grains of powder. The “06” in .30-06 refers to the year (1906) it became the official ammunition of the U.S. military.
Having the same bore size does not mean different cartridges are interchangeable. For example, there are several .30-caliber firearms that use the same bullet size but are designed for different cartridges (the .30-30, .30-06, .308, and the .300 Savage).
Gauge: diameter of the smooth shotgun bore and the size of the shotshell designed for that bore.
Common shotgun gauges are 10-gauge, 12-gauge, 16-gauge, 20-gauge, and 28-gauge. The smaller the gauge number, the larger the shotgun bore. Gauge is determined by the number of lead balls of size equal to the approximate diameter of the bore that it takes to weigh one pound.
For example, it would take 12 lead balls with the same diameter as a 12-gauge shotgun bore to weigh one pound. Today, however, gauge can be measured much the same way as caliber, by measuring the inside bore diameter.
The .410-bore shotgun is the only exception to the gauge designation for shotguns. It has an actual bore diameter of 410/1000ths of an inch, which is approximately equivalent to a 67.5 gauge.
Shotgun Choke and Shot String:
choke: The degree of narrowing at the muzzle end of the shotgun barrel (The choke of a shotgun determines shot string only. It has no bearing on shot velocity or distance.)
shot pattern: The spread of shot pellets after they hit a non-moving target
shot string: The three-dimensional spread of shot pellets after they leave the barrel
lighter than lead shot of the same size, reducing its velocity and distance
harder than lead, so the individual pellets stay round, keeping the pattern tighter
Some hunters use steel shot one or two sizes larger to make up for the difference in weight from lead shot. Others use the same size steel shot, or even smaller steel shot, to get more shot into their patterns. You should pattern your shotgun with various loads of steel shot before hunting waterfowl with it.
Effective pattern density is the key. Maximum pellet counts spread evenly across a 30-inch circle are best. Full chokes generally produce poor patterns with steel shot.
load: The amount of gunpowder in the cartridge or shotshell together with the weight of the bullet or shot charge
Reloaded shells may have wrong information or have been improperly reloaded. It's important to mark reloaded shells clearly. Use only shells or cartridges that you have reloaded yourself or that have been reloaded by a person whom you know is competent.
A cleaning kit should include:
Assorted rod tips—brushes, mop tips, slotted tips, jag tips
Patches appropriate for the caliber or gauge of the firearm
Stand to hold the firearm securely in a horizontal position
Use a cloth and cleaning solvent to remove dirt, gunpowder residue, skin oils, and moisture from the action and all other metal parts of the firearm.
If possible, clean the barrel from the breech end, using a bore guide and a cleaning rod holding a bore brush or patch wetted with solvent. Pass the brush/patch all the way through the barrel. Repeat several times with fresh patches. You may need a larger brush for the chamber.
Use a hand brush to clean the crevices where powder residue accumulates.
Follow with a dry patch, and finish with a lightly oiled patch for the barrel. Use cloth for other parts.
Apply a coating of gun oil to protect the firearm from rust.
Use a flexible “pull-through” cleaning cable when cleaning firearms with lever or semi-automatic actions to prevent dirt, grime, or debris from being pushed into the action area.
Clean your ammunition by wiping it with a cleaning cloth. If the ammunition is not clean, particles of sand or dirt can scratch the bore.
Use cleaning solvents in a well-ventilated area and only as directed.
If cleaning from the muzzle end, use a muzzle protector so that you don’t damage the rifling near the muzzle.
Step 1: Clean barrel and metal parts with good commercial solvent. Step 2: Bore should be cleaned through breech end where possible. Step 3: Clean bore until dry patch comes through as clean as possible. Step 4: Run oily patch through barrel. Step 5: All metal parts should get light coat of oil. Step 6: Store in horizontal position, or with muzzle pointing down. Step 7: After storage, run a clean patch through bore before firing. Step 8: Remove all excess grease and oil.
Storing firearms in closed gun cases or scabbards isn’t recommended because moisture can accumulate.
Store guns horizontally, or with the muzzle pointing down. (When guns are stored upright, gravity pulls gun oil downward into the action, which forms a sticky film. Oil also can drain onto the stock, softening the wood.)
Firearms must be stored unloaded and in a locked location, separate from ammunition.
Store ammunition, reloading supplies, and firearms in separate locked compartments. Keep all ammunition away from flammables. Store ammunition in a cool, dry place to prevent corrosion. Corroded ammunition can cause jamming, misfires, and other safety problems.
funding to wildlife agencies
control sale of hunting and trapping licenses
identify game and non-game species
Revenue from hunting licenses is a primary source of funding for wildlife management
hunting season established by Kublai Khan in 13th centry
restriction on game in Bible
conservation: Wise use of natural resources, without wasting them
preservation: Saving natural resources, but with no consumptive use of them
habitat: Complete environmental requirements of an animal for survival: food, water, cover, space, and arrangement
wildlife management: Science and practice of maintaining wildlife populations and their habitats
North American Model of Wildlife Conservation: 20th centry, US and Canada, established following principles.
food and water
arrangement of above in space
Edge effect: consequence of placing two contrasting ecosystems adjacent to one another.
carrying capacity: number of animal can have in a habitat in a year
reason for population loss
biological surplus: The number of animals in a population beyond the carrying capacity (can thus be hunted)
Hunter help sustain game population by
Filling out questionnaires
Participating in surveys
Stopping at hunter check stations
Providing samples from harvested animals
Helping fund wildlife management through license fees
birth rate: ratio of new females to total population
death rate: ratio of deaths in a to total population
predator: Animal that kills other animals for food
succession: Natural progression of vegetation and wildlife populations in an area; for example, as trees grow and form a canopy, shrubs and grasses will disappear along with the wildlife that use them as cover
Wildlife Management Practices:
Minitoring Wildlife Population
Hunting to Balance Population
Artificial Stocking (dislocation)
Controlling or Preventing Disease
Beneficial Habitat Management Practices
Brush pile creation
Food plots and planting
Mechanical brush or grass control
Nuisance plant or animal control
wear disposable gloves when cleaning game.
Remove feces from meat.
Wash your hands with soap and water.
Clean knives with clean water, wet wipes, or alcohol wipes.
Avoid handling brain tissue or spinal cord.
Never eat meat from any animal that looks sick.
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD): fatal disease that affects the nervous system of deer, elk, and moose (prion)
no signal of disease for 24-48 months
don't seem to infect humans
Continuous weight loss, Little fear of humans and predators, Excessive drooling, drinking, and urination, Stumbling, body tremors, lack of coordination, Loss of appetite
Hemorrhagic Disease (HD): white-tailed deer, eastern US, by bitting flies or midges
die in 8 to 36 hours
Bleeding from nose mouse, blue tongues, hoof overgrowth, Swollen face or neck, Loss of appetite, Acting tired or weak, Limping (lameness), Difficulty breathing, Drooling, Fever, Sudden death
Lyme Disease: transmitted by deer ticks, affect human and animals
human: affect joints, heart, nervous system, fever, fatigue, headaches
teated with antibiotics
most common tick-borne disease
Embedded ticks should be entirely removed as soon as possible by using fine-tipped tweezers. Grip the tick as close to the skin as possible, and pull it straight out without twisting. Store the tick in a dry jar or a resealable plastic storage bag for further identification if needed.
Rabies: virus affect CNS, passed on though saliva, 100% fatal if no treatment
1~3 months to affect brain
jumpiness, lack of fear, or aggression, loss of coordination and paralysis
coma and death within 1 to 10 days.
wash the bite area thoroughly with soap and water. You need to treat before symptom appear.
Mange: skin disease, by insects caled mites
Sarcoptic mange: most common
affect: red foxes, coyotes, gray wolves, red wolves, black bears, porcupines, rabbits, squirrels, and raccoons
animals: lose weight, act sluggish, and may lose their fear of humans
Waterfowl and wetland birds
Birds of prey
Huntable animal must be:
offer challenge for hunters
eagles, falcons, and owls and others are protected.
Identify Wildlife by:
shape, size, coloring, ...
Wildlife sign, such as tracks, scat, and calls
habitat and range
What the animal eats (herbivore, carnivore, or omnivore)
Nesting locations, routine, being nocturnal, or being solitary
Large Mammals: horned animals, antlered animals, bears, and large members of the wild cat or wild dog families.
Horned or antlered animals:
Horns are hollow and are not shed. Wild sheep and goats have horns.
Antlers are solid bone and are shed annually. Members of the deer family have antlers and rub their antlers on trees.
Horned and antlered animals are cloven-hoofed (their hooves have two parts).
Horned and antlered animals are ruminants (they chew cud). A ruminant digests its food in two steps. First they eat food and regurgitate it (cud), and then they eat it a second time. They have a hard upper pad that they use to mash their food.
Mammals are warm-blooded animals with hair. Young are nourished with milk from the mother.
Mammals can be carnivorous (meat-eating), herbivorous (plant-eating), or omnivorous (meat- and plant-eating).
Mammals seek to regulate their temperature. Mammals in cold climates must keep warm, and mammals in hot climates must keep cool.
Small mammals live shorter lives than large mammals, in general.
Mammals vary in social behavior—some species live in groups, and other species are solitary except when mating or raising offspring.
Hunted for: pelts (furbearers)
Upland Birds: turkeys, pheasants, grouse, and quail
Most male upland birds have more colorful feathers than females. The female’s plain feathers help her provide camouflage cover for her nest.
Waterfowl: diving ducks and puddle ducks.
Birds of Prey: eagles, falcons, and owls.
American Bittern Black-Crowned Night Heron Black Tern Common Tern Great Egret King Rail Least Bittern Loggerhead Shrike Peregrine Falcon Short-Eared Owl Yellow-Crowned Night Heron
Dickcissel Osprey Sedge Wren Upland Sandpiper Yellow-Bellied Flycatcher
Delmarva Fox Squirrel Indiana Bat Least Shrew
Eastern Wood Rat Small-Footed Myotis West Virginia Shrew
be ready: hunting plan with routes, phone number
know your location
prepare for safety equipments
Physical ability: Allergies, Asthma, Excess weight, Heart condition, Impaired vision or hearing, Poor physical conditioning, mential condition
warm: hat, cover skin
cold: layers (vapor transmission layer, insulating layer, protective out layer)
fluorescent orange (blaze orange, hunter orange) hat, outware (required by law in many states)
2 layers of socks: polypropylene skin and wool out
Wool is the best all-around choice for insulation because it still provides warmth when wet. The best clothing combination in bad weather is polyester or polypropylene underwear and shirt, wool pants, heavy jacket, and water-repellent rain pants and parka. Soaking wet clothing can lose heat several hundred times faster than dry clothing. Cotton clothing (underwear, T-shirts, jeans, flannel shirts) is a poor choice for cold, wet weather. When wet, cotton loses its already limited insulating ability and can cause rapid transfer of heat away from the body, increasing the risk of hypothermia.
Base plate compass with signal mirror Candle Emergency high-energy food Extra boot laces Extra pair of glasses Extra two-day supply of prescription medicine Fire starters—waterproof matches, butane lighter, etc. First-aid kit Fishing line and hooks Flashlight with spare batteries and bulbs Folding saw Knives Map Metal, waterproof carrying case that can double as a cooking pot Nylon rope Plastic sheet or large garbage bag Poncho Signal flares Single-edged razor blade Small can of lighter fluid Snare wire or twine Thermal foil blanket Tissues Water Water purification tablets Whistle (plastic)
Binoculars or spotting scope Biodegradable trail markers Duct tape Hatchet or ax Pencil and paper pad Shovel Sleeping bag appropriate for climate
Topographic Map: important
declination: difference between true north and magnetic north
To compensate for declination:
You should frequently plot your progress on map
Global Positioning System (GPS): latitude and longitude in any weather condition (circle earth twice a day, location calculated by time difference, accurate within 15 meters)
Accuracy can be improved with a Differential GPS (DGPS) or Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS).
Surviving Mode: three priorities: shelter, fire, and signal. Once you have shelter, fire, and your signal prepared, you can focus on water and food.
Rules for something go wrong
Give a responsible person your hunting plan. Don’t travel or hunt alone. Take enough food and water to last for several days in an emergency. Bring a map and compass, and always orient yourself before leaving camp. Wear layered clothing, and take extra clothing, preferably wool and polyester, with you. Plan your outings so that you can return to camp before dark. Never leave camp without taking fire-starting equipment and a foil blanket. Don’t panic if you become lost.
S.T.O.P.: Stop, Think, Observe, Plan
natural shelter: dry, no wind, water, firewood
debris hut / lean-to: hroof away from wind
if snow: fire on platform of green log, rocks
if dry: on dirt
gather: twigs, logs, dry wood inside bark of tree
A tepee of larger sticks enclosing the kindling
if wind: start fire so fire blown to rest of wood
if no wind: start in middle
international emergency sign for distress is three of any signal: three shots, three blasts on a whistle, three flashes with a mirror, or three fires evenly spaced.
If you’re near an open space, walk an X in the snow, grass, or sand. Make it as large as possible so that it can be seen easily from the air.
Do not light signal fires until you hear an aircraft. Adding green boughs, preferably pine if available, to the fire will help create smoke.
Personal locator beacons (PLBs): small transmitter that sends out a personalized emergency distress signal to a monitored satellite system. When you buy a PLB, you must register it with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Don't drink clear mountain stream (Giardia lamblia)
boiling, chemical purifiers, or filter system is good
Food: humans can go for two weeks or more without food
Hypothermia: lose heat faster than it can produce (cold, wet, moisture condition). Dress properly, dry out, eat food.
Symptoms: Uncontrolled shivering, slow speech, memory loss, irrational behavior, lack of body movement, sleepiness, unconscious
Treatment: shelter, remove wet clothing, eat warm stuff (not alcohol), fire, no immersed in warm bath (can lead to shock or death)
Frostbite: when tissue freezes
Symptoms: white skin, Prickly or tingling feeling occurs as ice crystals form, pain disappear as frostbite progresses, loss feeling
Treatment: warm with body heat, no rubbing, no hot sources, dry clothing, warm shelter
Survive Code without Fire:
no contact cold surface (including ground, rocks, snow)
wrap body in thermal foil (can sustain -10F)
limit body activity
Heat Exhaustion: hot, humid, lack of water
Symptoms: fatigue, dizziness, headache, nausea, muscle cramps, pale skin
Prevent: drink water, dress in layers, tae break
Treatment: cool, water, inactive, fan
Symptoms: hot, dilated pupils, weak pulse, shallow breathing, high temperature
Treatment: cool water, fan
First Aid: A prepared hunter also will carry a complete first-aid kit.
pressure on wound
cover with pad, clean cloth (infection is secondary)
don't lift pad to check wound
put new pad over old one if soaked
if no fracture, raise limb above level of heat
If pressure doesn't help: try shutting off circulation in the artery that supplies blood to the injured limb.
Broken bone: if pain last more than a few minutes, moving difficult, swelling
don't move joint, don't straighten
don't remove shoe if broken foot (tie pillow or thick padding over shoe)
splint broken leg: place thick padding between legs, bind injured to uninjured legs, above and below painful area
If a victim must be pulled to safety, move him or her lengthwise and head first, supporting the head and neck. Keep the spine in alignment.
Burn: relieve pain, prevent infection, treat for shock
1st-2nd degree: cold water (don't use ice water), avoid using butter or greasy ointment
2nd-3rd: wrapped with loose dry dressing
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: camp fire
Symptom: headache, dizziness, difficult breathing, red skin
Treat: fresh air, medical care
Chest Wound: bullet
CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)
immobilize: signal and wait until you are found
can move: make it to help
broken bone, cut: first aid
when hanging from fall-arrest system, use a rope or strap to relieve suspension trauma.
Shock: pale, cold, clammy skin; rapid pulse; shallow breathing; and fear
Keep the victim lying on his or her back.
Raising feet 8-10 inches
If trouble breathing: raise head and shoulders 10 inches
loosen restrictive clothing
Treat: go to hospital emergency room
Do not try to remove poison from snakebites
Don't cut and suction bite
keep the wound at or below the level of the heart
American Red Cross: relief to victims of disasters and helps people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
Nonmedical Good Samaritan Civil Immunity: certificate from training course. Render first aid to an injured person may be protected against civil damage claims under "Nonmedical Good Samaritan Civil Immunity"
Stuff in first-aid
2-inch-square sterile gauze pads 2-inch-wide gauze bandage roll 4-inch-square sterile gauze pads 42-inch-square cloth for triangular bandage or sling Antacid Antibiotic salve Aspirin Assorted adhesive dressings Assorted butterfly dressings Cell phone Cotton swabs Decongestant Eye dropper Hand sanitizer Instant chemical cold packs Instant chemical hot packs Latex gloves Moleskin Needles One-half percent hydrocortisone cream Petroleum jelly Roll of 1-inch adhesive tape Roll of 2-inch adhesive tape Safety pins Scissors Single-edged razor blades Sterile eyewash Thermometer Tweezers
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