Lecture 009


hypothetico-deductivism: confirmation and disconfirmation of a theory by empirical evidence or logical deductive consequences (primary theory-testing methodology of physical science)


hermeneutic (to interpret)


Little's argument: interpretive observation is social science is similar to interpretive observation (using theory) in physics


  1. Classify passage I would classify the passage above as following more of an anti-naturalistic approach. A naturalistic approach often uses definitions as theoretical constructs that guide them to operationalize their experiment. Therefore, a naturalist can accept contradictory definitions because definitions are only tools to explain and communicate about phenomenons. However, the passage above seems to view two contradicting definitions as a development from one definition to another through time. Specifically, the passage uses key phrases such as "one of the first to influence" and "currently being used" to signify the change of such definition of "gangs". Also, the passage assumes that both definitions of "gang" are observable, and therefore, those definitions are not reductive to specific physical phenomenons. This indicates that the passage is anti-naturalistic: it "see developing a definition of 'gang' as a matter of" revising our understanding of gang members.

  2. Does this work support weak natural/anti-natural

  3. the passage assumes that the "representation" is stable and "represented" is shifting

  4. the passage itself assumes anti-naturalism, therefore

  5. Compare and contrast "interpretive observation" in social and physical science While physical science often agree on single definition on one term, social science mix our daily use of a term within their study, therefore there can be way more accepted un-formalized definition in social science. Also, terms in physical science can often refer back to a specific paper, but such process is not predominant in social science.

  6. opinion on whether "self-understanding" effect research methodology In my opinion, no. Because self-understanding is not observable (unless given a operationalized method)


Naturalism vs. Anti-Naturalism

Naturalism vs. Anti-Naturalism

Reformed Naturalism:

Anti-naturalism (hermeneutic, inperrpretivism)

String Anti-naturalism

Weak reform naturalism: no anti-naturalism is true, naturalism can happen

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