Lecture 007

Result section:


The results indicate that the text-level information density between geology and education articles are similar, while geology article might need more prior knowledge to understand. We examined information density by applying metrics of lexical density, median of sentence-wise term-frequency-inverse-document-frequency (TF-IDF), and citation density on 5 different research article in each corpus.

Lexical Density

Figure 1 shows that the average lexical density among 5 different articles in geology context is 10.38% while in education context is 9.98%. The difference of lexical density between two context is 0.40%, which shows remarkable similarity between two corpora. For the purpose of illustration, an example sentence from geology corpus demonstrate its value of lexical density:

To facilitate comparison with the U-Pb results, we report weighted mean ages with analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level, ... With three exceptions, each zircon gives a concordant 206Pb/238U and 207Pb/235U age, and since the former is more precise, it is used to determine the ages of the bentonites

Similarly, an example sentence from education corpus demonstrate its value of lexical density:

We then simulated data under the reduced model ... For our Year 2 study (2008–2009), we conducted an impact analysis on student outcomes to assess whether the Year 1 results could be replicated with a new sample of students

Median of Sentence-wise TF-IDF

Figure 2 shows that the median of sentence-wise TF-IDF score for geology corpus is 7.288 while for education corpus is 7.894. With a difference of 0.606, the difference is negligible, which suggests that the two corpora are similar. For the purpose of illustration, the averaged TF-IDF score of the following sentence correspond to the median of all sentences in geology context:

On the other hand, these periods are close to the 11 yr Schwabe solar cycle, and decadal periodicities in Holocene-age Gulf of California sediments have also been linked to solar variability (Pike and Kemp, 1997) as have lower-frequency centennial-scale productivity cycles (Barron and Bukry, 2007)

Similarly, the averaged TF-IDF score of the following sentence correspond to the median of all sentences in education context:

I maintain this relation is what led Jackson to state he hated school before he had even finished kindergarten. What children learn about smartness within schools has powerful implications

Citation Density

Figure 3 shows that the citation density for geology corpus is 2.525 per 1000 words while the citation density for education corpus is 1.026 per 1000 words. The result exhibits a noticeable difference of 1.499 per 1000 words between corpora from two context. For the purpose of illustration, the following sentence resembles the citation per 1000 words in geology context:

These fall into three main categories: flow type, sediment type, and the Coriolis force. Flow Type While the nature of flows (e.g., velocity structure, stratification, rheology, size) in submarine channels is a matter of ongoing debate, due in part to the limited natural data available (Sumner et al., 2009; Parsons et al., 2010), there are suggestions that they may vary at least in part as a function of latitude

Similarly, the following sentence resembles the citation per 1000 words in education context:

In the Year 2 experimental sample, all impact analyses of posttest ALA and CST scores were based on 66 classrooms, including 31 Pathway classrooms and 35 control classrooms. Procedures Description of typical professional development activities Control teachers received a total of 26 hours (3 days, 6 hours prior to the first day of the school year and 8 days, 1 hour per day of professional development during the school year) that focused broadly on interpreting test data, using test data to improve schools’ CST scores, helping students improve their summarizing strategies during reading activities, forming professional learning communities (DuFour & Eaker, 1998; Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001), and understanding the teacher’s guide for the Holt Elements of Literature textbook series, Grades 6–12

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